A priority at Etsy was to support multiple web products with varying brand initiatives. Both were valid needs. A shared standard for design systems would need to ensure a solid foundation so that both these and other real-world priorities could more easily be achieved. Gathering examples of different design system priorities will help create a checklist to make sure your design system standards address real concerns.
Any company adopting these suggested standards could be assured their design system development focuses on immediate company needs, as well as adhering to standards they plug in to a growing body of open source code and tools that support most operational transformations that could be encountered.
Imagine a tool that can specify which design primitives, e. The tool would also allow the designer to specify which components were not yet needed and which platforms could be added later. With this tool, a designer would have a framework stating what aspects of the design system were completed or outstanding. A product manager could export documentation, and a developer could easily export UI and UI tests —no longer needing to translate UI from Sketch to code, or from web code to native implementation.
If created today, not only would this tool provide industry-wide savings, but it would start to standardize the low-level definition of a design system. First, decouple the design system from any specific implementation. Instead, our system is an abstraction that can be deployed to any target implementation. The exported format could be rendered into views by open source modules specific to each target implementation. Figure 1. Single source of truth concept proposed by the Design Tools team at Airbnb, originally illustrated by Jon Gold.
Next, codify the definitions of design primitives and components so they are fully expressed in the design system format. Design primitives are the building blocks of a UI.
These include specific predefined colors, fonts, spacings, and more. They are foundational visual elements that can be combined into components. Additionally, what are components? Components are mostly views composed of design primitives and smaller components whose minimal internal logic is mapped exclusively to state and state change.
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Benjamin Wilkins, Design Lead on the Design Tools team at Airbnb, describes the difference between primitives and components in minute of his talk, Thinking in Symbols for Universal Design. The catalog will need to group components with their accompanying states selected, focus, on-tap, error, etc. What are the benefits of this catalog? To start, functional tests for common components could be easily automated through contributions from the open source community.
In many cases, UI engineers would no longer need to write their own tests. The cataloged components would also enable a marketplace of boilerplate design systems that can be installed interchangeably, and against which custom UI can be built and substituted.
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This means bootstrapping the creation of every design system is no longer necessary. Lastly, we need to allow for the evolution, growth, and extensibility of design systems built upon the shared standard. A process for modifying existing components or creating wholly new ones is in order. Thoughtfully standardizing our collective knowledge will produce a more consistent user experience, accelerate development, decrease investment needed from individual companies, and enable open source and collective development of next-generation design tools that conform to shared conventions.
The elements that make up a design system—principles, UI components, patterns , and documentation—create the human-computer interaction layer for our apps. Product designers and system designers are directly responsible for this layer, and therefore should own the design system and its representation in the codebase.
There are 2 hurdles to achieving a single source of truth. First, our current design tools are inadequate. Most only allow us to produce images of UI and prevent designers from achieving product level fidelity. Second, if the implementation of a design system is spread across multiple repositories Android, iOS, React Native, React, etc. Lacking a single source of truth, the design system—spread out over multiple codebases—becomes an amalgam of sources that easily fall out of sync.
Designers use tools like Sketch, Illustrator, or Photoshop to draw pictures of UIs, yet these are actually just representations of interactive components that look different, behave differently, and contain different data depending upon the state of the app at a given time. As Colm Tuite notes in the article Design tools are running out of track.
Tuite then mentions interactions and states such as hovering over a button, focusing an input, checking a checkbox, and identifying scroll areas. Figure 2. Sketches of apps are then handed off to developers who have to translate them into working UI. Between the designer and the 4 developers that it takes to convert the design into Android, iOS, React Native, and React, it takes 5 different members of the team begin to bring the design up to product-level fidelity.
Since the original sketch was missing details about state and interactions, a back-and-forth conversation between designer and multiple developers is needed to make the designs production-ready. For similar reasons, many designers have focused on sharpening their coding skills for at least 1 platform. Thus, the return from the Babylonian Exile is described in terms that evoke the liberation from Egyptian oppression at the time of the Exodus Is The final restoration of Zion is represented as a new Eden.
Exegesis at Qumran and in the New Testament.
With regard to form and method, the New Testament, especially the Gospels, presents striking resemblances to Qumran in its use of Scripture. The similarity in scriptural usage derives from an outlook common to both the Qumran community and that of the New Testament. Both were eschatological communities that saw biblical prophecies being fulfilled in their own time, in a manner surpassing the expectation and understanding of the Prophets who had originally spoken them. Exactly as in the Dead Sea Scrolls, certain biblical texts are used in the New Testament in their literal and historical sense, while others are applied in a more or less forced manner, to the contemporary situation.
Scripture was understood as containing the very words of God. Some interpretations, in both texts, take a word and separate it from its context and original meaning to give it a significance that does not correspond to the principles of modern exegesis. An important difference, however, should be noted. In the Qumran texts, the point of departure is Scripture. Certain texts — for example the pesher of Habakkuk — are an extended commentary on a biblical text, which is then applied, verse by verse, to a contemporary situation; others are collections of texts dealing with the same theme, for example, 11 Q Melchisedeq on the messianic era.
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In the New Testament, in contrast, the point of departure is the Christ event. It does not apply Scripture to the present, but explains and comments on the Christ event in the light of Scripture. The only points in common are the techniques employed, often with a striking similarity, as in Rm and in the Letter to the Hebrews. Rabbinic Methods in the New Testament. Traditional Jewish methods of scriptural argumentation for the purpose of establishing rules of conduct — methods later codified by the rabbis — are frequently used in the words of Jesus transmitted in the Gospels and in the Epistles.
A particular trait is that the argument often revolves around the meaning of a single word.
The future of design systems
This meaning is established by its occurence in a certain context and is then applied, often in a very artificial manner, to another context. This technique has a strong resemblance to rabbinic midrash, with one characteristic difference: in the rabbinic midrash, there is a citation of differing opinions from various authorities in such a way that it becomes a technique of argumentation, while in the New Testament the authority of Jesus is decisive.
Paul in particular frequently uses these techniques especially in discussions with well-informed Jewish adversaries, whether Christian or not. Oftentimes he uses them to counter traditional positions in Judaism or to support important points in his own teaching. Rabbinic argumentation is also found in the Letters to the Ephesians and Hebrews.
It uses figures and examples in a verbal chain structure in conformity with Jewish scriptural exegesis. An particular form of Jewish exegesis found in the New Testament is the homily delivered in the synagogue. According to Jn , the Bread of Life discourse was delivered by Jesus in the synagogue at Capernaum. Its form closely corresponds to synagogal homilies of the first century: an explanation of a Pentateuchal text supported by a prophetic text; each part of the text is explained; slight adjustments to the form of words are made to give a new interpretation.
Traces of this model can perhaps also be found in the missionary discourses in the Acts of the Apostles, especially in Paul's homily in the synagogue of Pisidian Antioch Ac The New Testament frequently uses allusions to biblical events as a means of bringing out the meaning of the events of Jesus' life. The narratives of Jesus' infancy in the Gospel of Matthew do not disclose their full meaning unless read against the background of biblical and post-biblical narratives concerning Moses.
The infancy gospel of Luke is more in the style of biblical allusions found in the first century Psalms of Solomon or in the Qumran Hymns; the Canticles of Mary, Zechariah and Simeon can be compared to Qumran hymns. The reaction of listeners to Jesus' parables for example, the parable of the murderous tenants, Mt and par. Among the Gospels, Matthew shows greatest familiarity with the Jewish techniques in utilising Scripture. After the manner of the Qumran pesharim , he often quotes Scripture; he makes wide use of juridical and symbolic argumentation similar to those which were common in later rabbinic writings.
More than the other Gospels, he uses midrashic stories in his narratives the infancy gospel, the episode of Judas' death, the intervention of Pilate's wife. The rabbinic style of argumentation frequently used, especially in the Pauline Letters and in the Letter to the Hebrews, undoubtedly attests that the New Testament emerged from the matrix of Judaism and that it is infused with the mentality of Jewish biblical commentators. We are only concerned here with the formation of the canon of the Old Testament.
The number 24 was often reduced to 22, the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet. The numerical difference is explained by the fact that the Jews regarded as one book several writings that are distinct in the Christian canon, the writings of the Twelve Prophets, for example. Recent research and discoveries, however, have cast doubt on this opinion. It now seems more probable that at the time of Christianity's birth, closed collections of the Law and the Prophets existed in a textual form substantially identical with the Old Testament.
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Towards the end of the first century A. Many of the books belonging to the third group of religious texts, not yet fixed, were regularly read in Jewish communities during the first century A. They were translated into Greek and circulated among Hellenistic Jews, both in Palestine and in the diaspora. Ac , their views on Scripture would have reflected those of their environment, but we are poorly informed on the subject.
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